Health and Fitness


Abdominoplasty is a cosmetic surgery that is used to improve both the appearance and the contour of the abdominal region. This procedure removes both the skin and excess fat from the middle or lower abdomen, while carving out the muscles that are underlying in order to provide a much firmer appearance. 

A loose-looking abdomen may occur as a result of a very rough pregnancy or weight changes. For example, women who have had more than one pregnancy, you probably have stretched abdominal muscles along with the skin, which can be greatly benefited by this cosmetic surgery. After giving birth, a woman can regain muscle tone, however this does not help to carve back the tissue that connects these muscles, as has been stretched. The skin may also become loose after losing weight drastically and tends to hang, also does not adequately respond to exercise. This excess skin can be removed through abdominoplasty.


Brief description of the procedure

For this operation first makes an incision in the lower abdomen area just above the pubic region. The length of this cut depends on the amount of fat and skin that must be removed (may be from one hip to the other). To remove fat deposits can also be used for liposuction, abdominoplasty however needed and works best in the event that the muscles are stretched or there is a significant amount of loose skin. Obviously the situation is different for each patient, because in some cases is needed to remove more fat while others require that more skin is removed (in this case it is partial or complete abdominoplasty). If the person suffers from a significant overweight, weight loss is recommended to the ideal weight for the results of the operation are optimized.

Abdominoplasty is performed under local anesthesia and may require several hours to be carried out, which of course depends on the amount of tissue to be removed. As explained earlier, each case is different, so a patient may require more extensive intervention than another.

Following the procedure in conjunction with the incision that is practiced in the lower abdomen of the patient, take another right around the navel. In the case of partial abdominoplasty, the cuts are significantly smaller and the navel is maintained in the same position. After making the incisions, the surgeon proceeded to remove both fat and excess skin from the abdominal wall, lifting it with the direction of the ribs.

Once the fat and tissue are removed, the abdominal muscles are reduced and sutured together so that they are tight and give the patient a smaller waist. Through another incision, creating a new opening for the new position of the navel, which is placed in its new location using the new skin stitches. During this phase of the operation, any groove or scar present on the skin can be removed easily.

After the abdominoplasty, the incisions are stitched by the doctor and the stomach is wrapped in gauze for recovery. After placing a temporary tube, specifically a surgical drain which serves to remove any fluid that might collect at the surgical area, which helps decrease the inflammation that is produced as an intervention.

Plastic surgeons recommend an observation period of at least eight days during which the patient must remain at rest to see that the recovery is carried in the best manner possible. In some countries like Costa Rica, where he performed plastic surgery quality, low price, usually the price of the transaction includes a package of stay in which the patient can enjoy a short holiday before the treatment. This way you can visit the tourist attractions of another country while improving aesthetics.

If you are considering an abdominoplasty, you should take into account that the cost varies with each patient, which must first be examined by an experienced plastic surgeon who determines whether this intervention is indeed appropriate for you.


Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease that affects the gastrointestinal, respiratory and nervous of puppies and dogs.

This virus also infects wild animals such as foxes, raccoons, skunks, wolves, coyotes and ferrets. It is very important that you keep your dogs away from other wildlife to prevent the virus.

What causes canine distemper?

The disease is transmitted to the exposure of airborne virus particles in respiratory secretions of dogs and puppies. Outbreaks of canine distemper tend to be sporadic. Dogs six months or less that have not been immunized are at an increased risk of developing this infection.

Diagnosis of the disease


The diagnosis of canine distemper is based on symptoms, history of vaccination of your dog and certain lab tests. Several tests such as blood tests, x-rays, CT scans, cerebrospinal fluid, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence assay can be performed to confirm the diagnosis of canine distemper.

Symptoms and signs of canine distemper

The symptoms and signs of illness include:

  • Download the eye (watery initially and then as pus) 
  • Nasal discharge 
  • Coughing 
  • Fever 
  • Vomiting 
  • Diarrhea 
  • Loss of appetite 
  • Lethargy 

In advanced stages, paralysis, twitching, partial or full can occur if the virus attacks the nervous system.


Aid for canine distemper



The best way to prevent canine distemper is ensuring that your puppy or dog receives vaccination against the disease. Puppies that have not been immunized are more prone to viral infections because their immune systems are still weak. Treatment usually involves treating secondary infections, as there are medications available to kill this particular virus.

Medications used to control symptoms, and intravenous fluids can be administered. Once you have brought home their dog, avoid contact with other dogs, keep warm and provide good supportive care. It is vital that hygiene is maintained to avoid transferring the infection to other dogs.





Natural Remedies


The natural and holistic remedies have also proved highly beneficial in supporting immune systems, respiratory and digestive. These natural remedies are safe and gentle to use for your pet without the harmful side effects of conventional medications.

One of the most popular herbs such as Echinacea purpurea helps support the immune system. The homeopathic ingredients such as Bryonia Distemperinum and support the immune systems, respiratory and digestive keeping the chest, helping the digestive system function and maintain body temperature within normal range.

pathological lesions that occur in the body as a result of alcohol consumption over long periods of time.

Here are some definitions of "alcoholism", which will help us determine the extent of this pathology:

- Keller (1960): "Chronic illness as evidenced by the habit of drinking repeatedly so that it appears that the drinker is harmed their health and social and economic functioning.

- Jellineck (1960): "Any use of alcoholic beverages that causes any harm to the individual, to society or both."

- WHO (1952): "Alcoholics are those excessive drinkers whose dependence on alcohol has reached such a degree that present significant interference with mental disorders or mental or physical health, their interpersonal relationships and social functioning economic, or have clear signs the trend towards such symptoms. It is for this reason that they require treatment. "

- The diagnostic manual (DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, ICD-10): Distinguish between drinking and abusing alcohol dependent drinker. This is based on specific criteria.

The World Health Organization believes that those excessive drinkers are alcoholics, whose dependence on alcohol has caused serious damage to the mental or physical health, functioning social, and economical, requiring these people treatment.

Thus, alcoholism is caused by overeating, habitual alcohol or intermittently, for its continued use does occur dependent on the person consuming it, either physical or psychological in nature and is manifested clinically by physical consequences psychological or social. It is a chronic progressive disease.

Alcoholism is one of the most serious diseases that a person can suffer, and pathology of the most important of Medicine.

There are also in it each and every one of the features of any disease, as there is a causative agent (alcohol), the mechanism by which the agent acts or causes (learning, tolerance and dependence), impaired organ function (poisoning and malnutrition due to displacement of essential substances for nutrition, particularly vitamins), symptomatology (Clinic: with impaired physical and mental health. Exploration: Using analytical, radiology, etc..), an evolutionary process (towards addiction and death, or toward rehabilitation through abstinence) and epidemiology (exists throughout recorded history occurring in the population and now we are in an endemic situation).

Moreover, the action against the disease alcoholic / a is identical to that carried out in general terms for any illness:

- A diagnosis.
- A prognosis.
- A treatment: detoxification, detoxification and treatment of appetite.
- A rehabilitation.
- A maturational reorganization of the personality through psychotherapy, mainly in groups.
- An individual's social reintegration.

Edward and Gross (1976) listed the following symptoms to conceptualize, what they called "alcohol dependency syndrome '

1. Psychobiological symptoms: tolerance, withdrawal symptoms and restoration of the syndrome after drinking again.
2. Behavioral symptoms: Represented by a decrease in drinking patterns.
3. Subjective symptoms or equivalent to 'psychological dependence': Difficulty controlling drinking, and the desire to drink alcohol becomes the focus of the subject's life.

The definition of alcoholism (DSM54-III-R, DSM-IV and ICD-APA55 WHO 1056) is determined by the distinction between "abuse" and "dependency" of alcohol.

When we are born we are all subject to two basic laws: the law of gravity and the law of basic and existential angst. On the law of gravity there is little to say because everything is obvious and easy, and you do not believe, without trying to jump back to land on the ground. On the existential angst that qualify some points there.

If life is a journey, imagine for a moment you stand on your road of life. Forward opens up a world unknown is represented by the fear of to-come or fear of the future. If you look back, is the fear of losing the known, and went, and if you realize that instant, be afraid of losing control when or what is different, fear of confusion.

At first glance we may think that humans are extremely vulnerable because it is full of fears. If we reflect a bit, we see that if I had no fear of the future never enable them to face it, if I had no fear of losing the fight for anything ever met and if not afraid to never seek to clarify confusion. People, despite the fears are still getting married, having children, signing mortgages, etc..

Against this background, the most interesting is that it generates "a tense field" between the basic fears and the need to address. This represents the inherent human being who is living in a constant conflict and continuous decision-making (if I'm here I can be there). This can be summarized in a basic axiom of any therapy, whether or not online: "BE AFRAID OR PROBLEMS IS NORMAL, WHAT IS NOT PATHOLOGICAL face" (the actions speak louder. We have to deal with things and not worry about them, etc, etc).

We all know that the anguish and anxiety is very bad press (especially for professionals) and always appears to have taught us that, as with fever must end it immediately. Big mistake! The thing to do is put that anxiety to work for us.

And that means? Then there is a signal anxiety (not pathological) that tells me I have a problem. This anxiety acts as an alarm bell that warns me about some difficulty or fear. If for example, I am in bed and I can not sleep because tomorrow I have to give a lecture. Perhaps this anxiety is warning me that I have not prepared well enough and if I hear that voice and get up to go over, sure that when returning to bed I fall asleep like a baby. Actually, that signal anxiety has helped me prepare and cope better with my fear of failure at the conference tomorrow (fear of the future).

There is also another pathological anxiety that is called traumatic anxiety, which is not afraid of anything concrete as before, but are afraid of fear. If we imagine the anxiety like a thermometer where the maximum is at 10. Anxiety serious signal of 1 to 5 and is not pathological (no fever), but from 5 traumatic anxiety is that if it would have "fever".

Finally say that there are many patients who behave like that person who is driving his car and suddenly the water temperature gauge goes to the red zone. Instead of taking into account the warning signal that indicates a problem somewhere in the engine, what it does is cover with indicator hand and say "I do not see there." In that case, it is safer than a few kilometers later we see him standing in the ditch with the engine seizing and fuming.


The cough is a contraction spasmodic sudden and often repetitively, the human thoracic cavity, which causes a violent expulsion of air from the lungs, and usually accompanied by a distinctive sound. The cough is usually initiated to get rid of an accumulation of mucus in the airways, the air can move through this transition to a speed of 480 km / h. The cough can also be induced by a bolus of food entering the trachea instead of the esophagus by a deficiency of the epiglottis. A frequent cough or chronic typically indicates the presence of a disease.

ICD-10:     R05


The cough is to block the flow of air into the airway by voluntary closure of the glottis, then to increase intra-thoracic pressure by contraction of respiratory muscles. This increases the pressure of air trapped in the airways. It follows a sudden release of obstruction, which allows expulsion of air at high speed because of this pressure, carrying with it the elements may be present in the airways.


The droplets are of cough and the sneeze factor of contagion. It protects the environment of germs pathogenic coughing cons his arm and not his hand, which is an important vector of infection.



The clinical history and background may influence the diagnosis, but other neurological deficits with engines such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, stroke and myasthenia severe botulism may resemble, and should be excluded by additional tests . These tests may include a brain scan, an examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a electroneuromyography (ENMG), and a test Tensilon if we suspected myasthenia serious. The ENMG test is most useful for diagnosis, provided they think make a repetitive stimulation at high frequency which gives a potential increment of the engine picked up on the muscle, a specific block of the neuromuscular junction type pre-synaptic, that is to say, the default release of the acetylcholine in the synapse. This aspect is found only in the myasthenic syndrome of Lambert-Eaton another rare condition that can sometimes cause problems of differential diagnosis.
Definitive diagnosis of botulism can be confirmed by the presence of botulinum toxin in serum or feces of patients whose injection to mice reproduce the signs of the disease. One can also isolate the bacterium in the stool of patients with infant botulism or food, or a sampling of the infected wound in wound botulism.

 Treatment of botulism

Respiratory failure in severe cases of botulism requires mechanical ventilation (breathing) for several weeks in intensive care setting. After several weeks, the paralysis slowly improves. If diagnosed early, botulism food or injury can be treated with an antitoxin which blocks the action of toxin circulating in the blood. This condition may prevent patients from worsening, but recovery still takes many weeks. The antitoxin is not used in the treatment of infant botulism.
In cases of foodborne botulism may try to remove contaminated food still remaining in the gastrointestinal tract by gastric lavage or enemas. In cases of wound botulism, the wound treated surgically is responsible for removing the source of toxigenic bacteria.
Moreover, each case of botulism creates an emergency to public health because it is necessary to identify the source of infection, and ensure that all persons who have been exposed to the toxin were identified and it has removed all the contaminated food.


Botulism can result in death from respiratory failure. However, over the last fifty years, the proportion of deaths among people with botulism has fallen about 50% to 8%. A patient with acute botulism may require respiratory support together with medical care and intensive nursing for several months. Patients who survive an episode of botulism poisoning may suffer from fatigue and breathlessness for several years, and long-term therapy may be necessary to help them recover.

 Prevention of botulism

Food borne botulism has often been caused by canned homemade, low acid content, such as asparagus, green beans, beets and corn. However, outbreaks of botulism have been less common sources. In July 2002, fourteen Alaskans ate the meat of a beached whale, and eight of them presented symptoms of botulism, two of them have been treated by mechanical ventilation. Other sources of infection are the chopped garlic mixed with oil, peppers, tomatoes, potatoes baked mishandled and wrapped in aluminum foil, canned fish prepared to home and fermented fish. The domestic production of canned should obey strict hygienic precautions to avoid contamination. The garlic or spices mixed with oil are kept in the refrigerator. Potatoes baked and wrapped in aluminum foil should be kept hot until served or refrigerated.
Because botulinum toxin is destroyed at high temperature, it is safer to boil for ten minutes canned prepared at home before eating them. Canned can reveal the presence of C. botulinum by a domed exterior feature that results from pressure within the gas by the bacteria as waste discharge, it is best to simply discard such preserves. Like honey and other sweet foods are an ideal environment for the development of botulism, do not give their infants up to weaning, that is to say, until their digestive juices will become too acidic to allow bacteria to grow. Wound botulism can be prevented by consulting a doctor rapidly in cases of infected wounds and by not injecting drugs.

Read Also:

 Infant Botulism

Infant botulism is the United States the most common form of the disease, infection occurs by germination of spores in the intestine of an infant and has consequences for constipation, general weakness, loss of holding head and feeding difficulty. In the U.S. these symptoms gave the child the name botulism syndrome sloppy baby (baby flaccid).
The origin of the contamination of infants is the ingestion of sweet foods such as honey corn syrup. In fact, the spores of C. Botulinum are widely distributed in the environment and are becoming among the few that can survive in honey. In infants, the gastric juice is devoid of acidity, which combined with a favorable temperature and an anaerobic environment creates an ideal environment for the development of spores of C-botulinum bacteria producing the toxin. While these spores are harmless to adults, due to the acidity of the stomach, they are not destroyed not the underdeveloped digestive system of an infant. It is at this age immaturity of the intestinal bacterial flora and bacterial microbiota does not reside in the gut in sufficient quantity to fight against C. botulinum and destroy. Thus, without an opponent, C. botulinum can settle.
That is why we recommend never giving babies or honey or other sweet product whatsoever until weaning.
Read also:


Continued from: Botulism: Its definition, three kinds of botulism and History of Botulism

Types of Botulism

  • Type A botulism (serotype pathogenic for humans and animals)
  • Botulism type B (serotype pathogenic to humans)
  • Botulism type C (serotype pathogenic certain animals including cattle and birds, rather in the Far West in France since the 1980s)
  • Botulism type D (serotype pathogenic certain animals, including dogs)
  • Botulism Type E (serotype pathogenic to humans and some animals found in 1935, with a worrying increase in poultry production in France since 1997 Botulism It seemed endemic to north of the northern hemisphere, cracking up now in Canada and Japan where it touches including seabirds. In France, for the first time an episode of sudden deaths of more than 5000 to 10000, or 16,000 birds gulls (black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus), essentially) was found in the Strait of Pas-de-Calais on the frontage littoral du Pas-de-Calais mainly in Canche Bay and north of it, in February 1996, perhaps because a large quantity of fish damaged or discarded at sea in a discharge local)
  • Botulism type F (serotype pathogenic certain animals)
  • Botulism type G (serotype pathogenic certain animals)

 Symptoms forms in food and wound

The symptoms of botulism conventional occur most often between 12 and 36 hours after ingestion of the botulinum toxin, but they can sometimes occur early as the 6th hour or later after 10 days. They usually include a dry mouth, difficulty swallowing, an incomprehensible speech, double vision, vomiting, diarrhea important, especially a generalized muscular weakness. If not treated, these symptoms can worsen to paralysis of muscles of the limbs and trunk (especially respiratory) which can lead to death. In all cases the toxin secreted by C. botulinum that causes the disease, not the bacteria itself.
There are forms of wound botulism associated with the voluntary or involuntary penetration of a contaminated substance, often following the intramuscular or intravenous injection of a contaminated substance. It may in particular include drugs such as the heroine of poor quality can cause serious problems requiring hospitalization and mechanical ventilation. In the latter case, the symptoms appear from six hours after injection and persisted up to two weeks. They may be double vision, eyelids heavy, confusion of language or speech, difficulty swallowing, bilateral arm weakness, and flaccid paralysis accompanied by respiratory distress


Epidemiology, landscape epidemiology

The episodes of botulism are occasionally found in nature, often in summer for C. botulinum
In the United States is reported on average 110 cases of botulism per year. 25% fall in food borne botulism, 72% of infant botulism, and the rest of wound botulism. Outbreaks of food borne botulism involving two or more persons are usually due to consumption of spoiled canned homemade. The number of cases of food borne botulism and infant has changed little in recent years, but wound botulism has increased because of the use of the heroin brown (black tar), especially in California.
It is a disease so rare in France;its impact annually is about 0.5 cases per million inhabitants. These are sporadic cases, most often food borne meats, canned meats and manufacturing family, rarely industrial, craft or by inoculation with the drug. The risk of human botulism acquired from poultry or bovine sources is low in this country, but recent outbreaks in other countries with a significant number of patients (several dozen) showed a case fatality rate of over 5% which calls for caution


Botulism ICD-10:
Botulism (from Latin Botulinus, "sausage") is a paralytic disease rare but serious due to a bacterial neurotoxin, the botulinum toxin (formerly known as botulinum toxin) or botulinum, produced by different species of bacteria Anaerobic the genus Clostridium, most known as Clostridium botulinum. Human botulism is primarily associated with toxin type A, B and E. Their mechanism of action is inhibition of the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, blocking the transmission between nerve and muscle and leads to respiratory paralysis and locomotor.
The botulinum toxin is the most potent of all toxins known in nature. However, it does not withstand heat or prolonged exposure to oxygen, so poisoning generally occurs when one consumes the products used in glass jar or tin with too little caution: the vectors typical of botulism are therefore preserved home-made and eaten cold. An unusual case of botulism has been observed in Britain during the exceptionally hot and dry in 1976, when river levels dropped so low in some places by feeding the swans have accidentally ingested the substance from anaerobic layers, they generally do not they then presented the symptoms of botulism.
In humans, there are three kinds of botulism:
  • food botulism, caused by eating food contaminated with botulinum toxin: it is therefore a foodborne illness;
  • wound botulism, caused by the toxin in a wound infected with Clostridium botulinum;
  • infant botulism, caused by consumption of spores of bacteria, which then develop in the intestine where they release the toxin.
All forms of botulism can be fatal and must be addressed urgently. Botulism food may become a public health problem when many people are poisoned from a single contaminated food source.

 History of Botulism

In the early nineteenth century, medical authorities of the Duchy of Württemberg were alerted by an increase in the number of cases of fatal poisoning by ingestion of spoiled food. The cause was identified a decrease precautions of hygiene in the preparation of homemade sausages in the country due to widespread poverty in the population caused by the Napoleonic Wars. In 1802, the Government of Stuttgart enacted a public warning about "dangerous consumption of black pudding black smokers". The toxic agent was supposed to the prussic acid. But it is only 20 years later, in 1822 the poet and physician Justinus Kerner correctly identified the origin of this new poison which he thought was "the acid fats (Fettsaure). He gave a detailed description of the symptoms of botulism and also had the intuition of potential therapeutic applications of this poison.
  • In 1870, doctors German Muller renames the "Kerner's disease" in Botulism (from Latin botulus, referring to the hose used in animal meats and beyond any hose stuffed with a sausage).
  • In 1895, the bacterium responsible is identified by the Belgian microbiologist Emile-Pierre van Ermengem who named the Bacillus Botulinus "from a bacillus anaerobic, spore-forming and producing toxins
  • In 1904, poor sterilization of canned is highlighted in connection with the poisoning of 32 people (21 sick and 11 dead) by Landman isolating a strain of Bacillus Botulinus having developed in canned beans.
  • In 1923, Bergey Class Bacillus Outlines in the Clostridium by renaming Clostridium botulinum.
  • From 1910 to 1970, 7 different types of toxins were isolated, including one specifically associated with fish or seafood

Next: Botulism: Types of Botulism, Symptoms forms in food and wound and Epidemiology

Symptoms of Lyme disease

Circular rash, called erythema migrans, present in 80% cases, more or less clear

Circular rash, called erythema migrans, present in 80% cases, more or less clear

The disease has various forms and develops in three stages (see full article on the Lyme Disease) and can affect various organs and body systems, with a varying range of symptoms, not systematic: all patients do not all symptoms. And many of these symptoms are not specific to Lyme disease and can appear in other diseases. Moreover, because of poorly understood factors (virulence of the bacteria, the patient's immunity, coinfection ..), the time between the bite and the incubation period of onset of symptoms varies. This period is most often 1 to 2 weeks, but it is sometimes shortened to a few tens of hours, or otherwise extended to several months or years. The disease is often asymptomatic (without obvious symptoms), asymptomatic infections were detected in almost 7% of those infected in the United States but the rate of infection without symptoms may be much higher in Europe .

Typical erythema migrans, but is present in this form than double in less than 10% of patients

Typical erythema migrans, but is present in this form than double in less than 10% of patients

There are risks of misdiagnosis because of the wide variety of symptoms, Lyme disease can lead to many misdiagnoses such as multiple sclerosis, the lupus, the rheumatoid arthritis, the fibromyalgia, the chronic fatigue, the depression, the Alzheimer's disease, the Parkinson's disease, the autism and many others. In 2006, O. Peter estimated that the sensitivity of the tests in early stage was still limited (sensitivity 50%) and unspecific (one immunoblot is necessary to clarify the bacterium in question, a more accurate genetic typing justifying reaction polymerase chain reaction (PCR) joint fluid and skin biopsy, in these cases with a sensitivity of 60 to 80% of cases). There are cases of Lyme arthritis negative serology


Agents and vectors

The bacteria responsible are borreliosis spirochetes of the genus Borrelia.


On Lyme disease:

  • a test targeting a species of bacteria may not detect other species of the parasite.
  • The causes of the spread of the disease are probably not all known.
  • Lyme disease can also be complicated by co-infections transmitted by ticks, such as rickettsial diseases, the babesiosis, the bartonellosis, infections mycoplasma. These co-infections must therefore also be addressed.
  • Cases of reinfection of the same patient are possible

The recurrent fevers

The relapsing fever relate essentially to the Ethiopia and to a lesser extent, the China North and the South America.

Lyme disease must be taken seriously for any walk in the woods, the countryside in France, in Switzerland and Belgium in particular. Cases of contamination are also reported in the public gardens of large cities.

There is talk of 20 to 50 cases per 100 000 population in France. The prevalence is particularly high among hunters (15% of them have been in contact with infectious germs) and Lyme disease is considered an occupational disease in the forest.


Eco-epidemiology of relapsing fever in tropical Africa


The tropical borreliosis seems to be increasing and have been systematically ignored for a long time confused with malaria, which affects the same people with similar symptoms. The disease known as relapsing fever was considered rare until the late 1980s, before researchers from the IRD does show that rural areas in the region of Dakar, the tick-borne borreliosis was (after malaria) the first cause of consultation in the clinic. The bacterium is playing the human immune system, one individual may develop the disease many times.

Over 10 years (from 1990 to 2005), researchers from the IRD that followed the evolution of the disease in West Africa found that the tick vector is now found in rodent burrows in most villages of Senegal from Mali and Mauritania.

The incidence of the disease is very high: 4 to 25% of the study population carried a borreliosis, with variations depending on the year, with an average annual incidence of 11% over 14 years. This is the highest rate measured in Africa for a bacterial disease.

Two species of bacteria of the genus Borrelia are encountered in tropical Africa:

  • Borrelia duttoni in East Africa.
  • Borrelia crocidurae in West Africa and area Saharan and Sahelian. Its known vector is the tick Ornithodoros sonrai, who lives in close contact with wild rodents which it colonizes the burrows.

In Senegal, the tick has colonized areas of savanna Sudan, apparently it at the pace of decline in average rainfall that began with the drought of 1970.

IRD, the Institut Pasteur and the University of Dakar have over 14 years (1990-2003), followed borreliosis in the community Dielmo (rural area of savannah in the region of Sine-Saloum), which was also tracked demographic and health.
The research team has lived permanently in the village to see each day villagers to detect all cases of malaria, borreliosis or tick-borne fevers not caused by these diseases, confirming or reversing the disease every time a test Biological and medical examination.

The bacterium Borrelia crocidurae was also systematically searched at least once a year in people without symptoms.
All burrows and houses over the concessions have been sought, it counted in measuring the presence of ticks and the rate of infection of these ticks with the bacteria.

Rodents and insectivores were captured different to try to understand the ecology of bacteria and what was his tank.
For the study period, 11% of people have developed an annual borreliosis and, for all age groups.

Only malaria and influenza have an incidence as high on as long a duration.

Of systematic surveys in Senegal, Mali and Mauritania were used to examine the range of the tick, to measure the rate of infection throughout its range and to determine the proportion of villages affected by the disease.

  • The tick vector is massively present in these 3 countries, wherever the average rainfall is less than 750 mm;
  • 26 of the 30 villages surveyed (87%) were colonized by the tick;
  • Ticks were present in 31% of burrows found in the villages;
  • 21% of the ticks were infected by Borrelia crocidurae;
  • In the two-thirds of the villages studied, the exposure of residents to borreliosis was even higher than villagers Dielmo.

Lyme disease is therefore a major problem of public health in most rural areas of Senegal and Mali and throughout Mauritania, however, though the condition became Bacterial the most common, it remains totally unclear staff health. Often, cases believed to be a malaria has become resistant to drugs antimalarial drugs are in fact a borreliosis, whose symptoms are identical. In addition, Borrelia crocidurae is present in blood in small quantities. It is detectable in blood tests, microscopy, and by experienced personnel and only during peaks of fever.

The animal reservoir is difficult to treat, but antibiotics family of tetracyclines are far cheaper and effective.

Symptoms of recurrent fevers

After several days of incubation, high fever occurs suddenly with nausea and headaches. Fever fall after 5 or 6 days, leaving a great fatigue. The cycle is repeated from two to eight times, sometimes with complications visceral. These symptoms are that the disease is often confused with malaria resistance. The disease can cause meningo-encephalitis serious and sometimes death.

See Also: What is Borreliosis and Lyme Disease.


Classification and external resources

ICD - 10 A69.2
ICD - 9 088.81

The borreliosis are infectious diseases caused by bacteria-borne and transmitted to humans by ticks or lice.

Borrelia burgdorferi one of three known variants of the parasitic bacterium that causes Lyme disease. The Borrelia have a serpentine shape and characteristic spiral, hence the name of spirochetes
Borrelia burgdorferi one of three known variants of the parasitic bacterium that causes Lyme disease. The Borrelia have a serpentine shape and characteristic spiral, hence the name of spirochetes

These bacteria, which derive their name from the French biologist Amedee Borrel cause two main forms of borreliosis:

  • The tropical borreliosis, known since as long as the recurrent fevers.
  • the Lyme disease.

Both diseases seem to be regarded as emerging diseases, since the number of ticks and / or the number of borreliosis appears to be increasing rapidly (several decades) in North America as in Europe and Africa.

They are transmitted:

  • by ticks (two main species) for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), or sometimes in utero from mother to child (Borrelia burgdorferi)
  • bitten by fleas or ticks for tropical borreliosis (Borrelia recurrentis).

Prevention precautions clothing covering the body limit the risk of being bitten by ticks. Light-colored clothing can locate them more easily and drive them before they find an opening to the body. On returning from areas at risk should be fully s'inspecter clothing and skin. Consult a physician before any unusual symptoms.


Lyme disease 

Male (small) and females of the tick Ixodes ricinus. The female is one of the main vectors of Borrelia responsible for Lyme disease

Male (small) and females of the tick Ixodes ricinus. The female is one of the main vectors of Borrelia responsible for Lyme disease

xodes scapularis, one of the other tick vectors of Lyme disease

Ixodes scapularis, one of the other tick vectors of Lyme disease

It derives its name from a town in Connecticut where it was rediscovered in 1975, although it has been described as 1910 in Europe. This is the most common disease transmitted by ticks in the northern hemisphere, and it is growing fast in Europe as the United States.
It is caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia
- Borrelia burgdorferi is the leading cause of Lyme disease in North America,
- Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii are implicated in most cases European (and Asian).

It is sometimes not clearly diagnosed because symptoms vary and may be confused with other diseases. This especially as ticks can be both carriers of Lyme disease and meningoencephalitis Spring Summer (or FSME: Frühsommer-meningo-Enzephalitis in German).

The Borrelia responsible for Lyme disease seem to always be transmitted to humans by the bite of ticks belonging to several species of the genus Ixodes

The symptoms (fever, headache, fatigue, depression and rash characteristic erythema migrans) (not systematic) usually resolve with appropriate antibiotic treatment (especially if diagnosis and treatment is early). Otherwise, they live at the end of events to joint problems, cardiac and neurological disorders can be disabling and difficult to treat.

The diagnosis and treatment can be complicated by co-infection facilitated by the fact that the tick is a carrier of many parasites. A bartonellosis may well be joint and confused with Lyme disease (despite his rash (erythema) which can be very different

Some patients, after antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease continue to show severe symptoms of fatigue, sleep disturbances and cognitive difficulties. There is debate on whether or not in this case to continue antibiotic treatment (which seems to have little effect on these symptoms and has side effects).

Next: Symptoms of Lyme disease, Agents and vectors, The recurrent fevers.

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