During the Vijayanagara Empire, flourished the arts in general. During periods of stability were carried out heavy investment in infrastructure, long-term architectural projects and promoted the sponsorship and patronage of musicians, writers, poets, sculptors, painters, religious and even athletes. For fulfill the role of Vijayanagara as the main banner of the ancient Hindu culture sought recovery of traditional art, which evolved in a still tangible today.

Architecture

One of the many aqueducts supplying the city.Pillars Chalukya and vimana Dravidian , Hampi .The architecture of empire is a harmonious combination of the Chalukya styles, Pandya, Chola and Hoysala, predominant in the region in previous centuries. The influence of this union in the architecture, sculpture and painting was This new style is retained as the model to follow centuries after the fall of Vijayanagara. Reference architectural works are undoubtedly the Kalyanamantapa (Wedding Hall), the Vasanthamantapa (Corridor Discovered) and Rayagopura or Torre. The architects and sculptors made use of abundant and resistant granite is the area in order to better protect the city against the constant risk of invasion. There are monuments scattered throughout the southern half of India, but there is none comparable to the buildings of Vijayanagara, declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco .

Throughout the fourteenth century monarchs continued inspiring style buildings vesara typical of the Deccan, but also introduced gopurams Dravidian religious grounds. The Prasanna Virupaksha temple (underground temple) of Bukka Raya I and Hazare Rama Temple Krishna Deva Raya I are examples of the architecture of the Deccan. The varied and intricate ornamentation of the columns is his trademark. In Hampi, the temple stand Vittala (the most prominent example of Kalyanamantapa style columns) and the Hazara Ramaswamy and refined construction. A visible aspect of this style is his return to the more serene and simplistic art of the Chalukya dynasty. The construction of the temple of Vittala lasted for decades under the dynasty Tuluva.

220px-Vitthal_Temple_pillarsOther prominent examples of the style of Vijayanagara are great monoliths Sasivekalu (mustard) Ganesha and Kadalekalu ( peanut ) in Hampi, statues Gomateshwara in Karkal and Venur , and the bull Nandi at Lepakshi . The significance of this style is proof the many temples scattered around cities like Bhatkal , Kanakagiri , Sringeri , Tadpatri , Lepakshi , Ahobilam , Tirupati and Srikalahasti in Andhra Pradesh , and Vellore , Kumbanokam , Kanchi and Srirangam in Tamil Nadu . Also preserved wall paintings as Dasavathara (the ten avatars of Vishnu) and Shiva Shivapurana or stories, both in the Virupaksha temple at Hampi, and other paintings in the temples under Jain Basadi or Varadaraja Kamaskshi and two high temples in Kanchi. A recurring aesthetic motif was carved pillars with the appearance of horses, as evidence of the importance attached to the cavalry to the army. This mix of regional styles contributed to the cultural wealth for which people extended; came to bring fresh air to the rigid Hindu styles that had previously prevailed.

An example demonstrating the cosmopolitanism of capital is the presence of a large number of buildings feature Islamic . The story only looks at the political confrontation between Vijayanagara and the Deccan sultanates, leaving aside the obvious sign of cooperation between the two confessions to civil level. Surviving a large number of arches , domes and arches that serve as evidence of this cultural exchange as well as remnants of pavilions, stables and towers, suggesting that the rulers promoted the coexistence of the two religions. is considered this influence might be especially powerful early fifteenth century, coinciding with the reign of Deva Raya Deva Raya I and II, who were known to have a good number of Muslims in the army and the court, including architects. This harmonious exchange of ideas, however, would have given only during brief periods of peace between the Empire and their Muslim rivals. Some reliefs of the Great Platform (Mahanavami Dibba) includes figures with typical features of the Turks of Asia plant, which would have accommodated as assistants of the Royal Family.

Language

Poem in Kannada by the poet Manjaranja Kannada languages, Telugu and Tamil were used in their respective areas of influence. Have recovered more than 7,000 total entries (Shasana) including 300 sheets of copper (Tamarashasana) in kannada (about half), Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit . The bilingual inscriptions no longer used at the end of the fourteenth century. In the earliest examples is represented Hanuman and Garuda (Eagle God), the vehicle of the god Vishnu. The archaeological research agency official Indian government has recovered and deciphered inscriptions on Kannan and Telugu.

Literature

In the Vijayanagara Empire was a place for poets, intellectuals and philosophers. Here, with freedom to write in Sanskrit or in any local language (Kanner, Telugu and Tamil), covered topics such as religion, biographies, Prabandha (fiction novels), music, poetry, grammar and medicine. The Telugu language became the literary excellence and reached its zenith under the reign of Krishna Deva Raya. The works in Sanskrit were mostly commentaries on the Vedas, or essays on the Ramayana and the Mahabharata , written by famous intellectuals such as Sayana and Vidyaranya , which extolled the superiority of the doctrine of advaita over rivals.

Writers were also followers of the faith dvaita , monks from Udupi , as Jayatirtha (tika earned the nickname for his polemical writings acharya) Vyasatirtha , author of rebuttals to the Advaita philosophy and classical thinkers as various Gaudapada , and Tirtha and Vadi Raja Sripada Raya, critics also with the beliefs of Adi Shankara , the first great advaita. In addition to these monks, many other writers in Sanskrit settled in the royal court and the palaces of the nobles. Many kings were also writers, like King Krishna Deva Raya, author of the great classic Jambavati Kalyana, a poetic drama.

Writers and poets in kannada of the time also wrote extensive works on the movement bhakti and Haridas, literature Brahmanical and work on lingayatíes. The Haridasa also composed religious songs (devaranama) with metric RAGALA. And inspiring teachers of the literary movement were Madhvacharya and Vyasatirtha. Purandaradasa and Kanakadasa are considered the first among many dasas (devotees) for his extensive and important contribution. Kumara Vyasa , the foremost Brahmin scholar, wrote the Gudugina Bharata, a translation of the Mahabharata. This work represents a turning point between ancient and modern Kannada. Chamarasa virashaiva was a renowned intellectual and poet, who held public discussions on philosophy and religion with the learned Vaisnavas of the court of Deva Raya II . Your Prabhulinga Lile, which was later translated into Telugu and Tamil, is a compliment to the XII century mystic Allama Prabhu , who he believed was the reincarnation of the god Ganapati .

In this moment for Telugu literature came Charitamu Manu, the prabhanda (commentary) more important. Krishna Deva Raya, an expert who knows the language, "wrote the famous Amuktamalyada. Likewise, in his court met eight astadiggajas , the most important writers who have given this language. Worth mentioning among them Allasani Peddana (Andhrakavitapitamaha called 'father of Telugu language'), the author's most prestigious, and Tenali Ramakrishna , court jester and author of Panduranga Mahatyam, the masterpiece of Telugu literature. also belongs to this period Srinatha , author of Marutratcharitamu and Salivahana Sapta Sati, protected from King Deva Raya II, and possessed of a status as important as any minister.

Although most of the literature written in Tamil during this period was established in areas under control of the vassal kings Pandya, Vijayanagara kings also paid attention to its poets. Svarupananda Desikar wrote a 2824 anthology of poems, Sivaprakasap-perundirattu on advaita philosophy. His pupil, the ascetic Tattuvarayar , he authored another anthology shorter Kurundirattu, with about half of verse. Krishna Deva Raya protected and subsidized by Haridas Tamil poet, whose Irusamaya Vilakkam is an exhibition of the two great currents Hindu Vaishnavism and Saivism, with a predilection for the former.

The literature also was field of political intrigue and religious, as the kings acted as patron of writers shivaístas Vaishnava or depending on your affiliation and social sectors that need at all times.

Other prominent authors and works of musical knowledge and medicinal were Vidyaranya (author of Rati Ratna Pradipika), Sayana (author of Ayurveda Sudhanidhi) and Lakshmana Pandita (author of Vaidyarajavallabham).


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