A formal neuron is a mathematical representation and computing the biological neuron. It reproduces some biological characteristics, particularly in dendrites, axons and synapses, through functions and numerical values. The neurons are grouped into formal networks of neurons. Using algorithms of machine learning, we can solve a neural network to make it perform tasks that fall within the artificial intelligence.
Transformation of stem cells into neurons
In 2008, the transformation of stem cells into neurons in the cortex and their successful transplantation into the brains of mice (the majority of new neurons having connected with many parts of the brains of mice), performed at the Free University of Brussels) constitutes a serious avenue for curing various neurological and psychiatric diseases such as epilepsy, the strokes, the Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.
See the articles of daily The Evening of August 18, 2008 (summary on pages 2 and 3 in the paper version: ):
Page 2: "How can stem cells support the cortex - Their research is published today in the journal 'Nature'" excerpt: "Led by Pierre Vanderhaeghen, researcher FNRS at the Institute for Interdisciplinary Research in Human and Molecular Biology of the Free University of Brussels, a team of European researchers has observed for the first time the internal mechanism of a cell strain that changes in neuron cortex. And how to inject a new brain to try to help them work better! "
Page 3: "Block Alzheimer's: excerpt:" It goes without saying that the discovery of the possibility of turning stem cells into new neurons that can replace or support the existing neurons could be a possibility to treat serious patients (Ed.: d Alzheimer's) current. "
Page 3: "Epilepsy hunted" commented: "The synchronization of neurons is an intrinsic property of neural networks. Observation of EEG of healthy subjects revealed the existence of different frequencies to the brain activity that correspond to synchronize groups of neurons. It seems that in the case of epilepsy, this synchronization overshoot. Characterizing neurons have a normal face to those runaway would try to reduce the magnitude of the seizures. "
Page 3: "stroke": excerpt: "This shortfall relates generally defined territory of the brain. Therefore, understanding how it could eventually "produce" spare parts that could replace neurons destroyed gives hope to reduce the burden of sequelae of this disease. "
The structure of organisms that constitute the biological biosphere can be decomposed into several levels of organization: atomic, molecular, cellular, tissue, organic, of systems, and finally that of the whole organism function.
The scientific study of living is by researching the elements of each of these levels, then with understanding the interactions between these different levels (see the article "Scientific Method").
The study of the neural level can understand the functioning of the neuron, which is the basic functional unit of the nervous system.